Identifying Insect Pests

Find out how to deal with insect pests while leaving beneficial bugs alone.

Related To:
Cabbage Looper Caterpillar

Cabbage Looper Caterpillar

This pest is very destructive due to its voracious consumption of plants in the cabbage family.

Photo by: Image courtesy of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Bugwood.org

Image courtesy of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Bugwood.org

Tools and Materials

  • notebook
  • magnifying glass
  • camera
  • jar (for collecting samples)
  • insect field guide

Step 1: Examine the Plant

If you suspect an insect is causing problems, examine the plant. Check the leaves, top and bottom, looking for insects, caterpillars, and egg masses. As you touch the leaves, watch for scurrying or flying insects. Jot down notes, take a photo, or collect a sample so you can research the possible culprits using a field guide or gardening reference. Wait to spray until you've made a positive ID. Many insecticides will kill not only pests but also beneficial insects, including predatory insects that eat the pests and pollinators like honeybees.

If a plant is struggling, consider non-pest causes first. For example, if you see a wilted plant, check soil moisture. Gardeners sometimes mistake symptoms of nutritional deficiencies -- yellowing leaves, stunting, weak growth, poor production -- as indications of pests. If you see symptoms like these, consider testing your soil nutrients and pH levels.

Step 2: Identify the Type of Pest

Entomologists (insect specialists) often categorize insects by how they feed.

Chewing insects eat leaves. Symptoms include holes, ragged edges, and "skeletonizing" -- eating the tissue between leaf veins. Examples include weevils, caterpillars, flea beetles, and Japanese beetles. Look for the telltale frass (excrement) of the larger of these pests.

Sucking insects pierce a hole in plant tissue and suck out the fluids. Signs include stippling on foliage or silvery bronze leaves and discolored blooms. Examples include spider mites, aphids, thrips, and leafhoppers. These pests often leave behind moltings -- the outer skin they shed as they grow.

Other insects, such as wireworms, feed on roots. Cutworms feed at ground level, girdling young seedlings.

Tips

Once you've identified that you indeed do have a pest problem, determine whether control is really necessary. Is the damage located on the leaves of a plant you'll be harvesting in a week or two? Control measures may not be warranted. However, many pests multiply quickly so keep a close eye on pest populations.

Once you've identified the pest, research its life cycle and habits. Some pests, such as leaf miners that tunnel into plant tissue, will not be affected by sprays. Controls will be more effective if you catch the insect in the most vulnerable part of its life cycle.

Keep Reading

Next Up

12 Mosquito Bite Remedies

Use these tips to ease the irritation of bug bites.

How to Control Grubs

Get ahead of leafy chewers by attacking them at the larval stage.

Tomato Hornworm

The tomato hornworm is a common pest of tomato plants as well as peppers, eggplant and potatoes.

Q&A: Methods for Mole Control

Learn how to rid your garden of a pesky mole.

Carpenter Ants

A beneficial insect you'll want to see pack up its tool belt and scram.

Aphids 411: How to Beat Them in the Garden

Aphids are literally born pregnant and a few dozen aphids will breed into thousands in a matter of weeks.

Voracious Japanese Beetles

These little critters are a gardener’s worst nightmare, devouring more than 300 varieties of plants.

Whiteflies: What You Need to Know

Find out how to cope with these garden pests.

Slug Control

Slimy garden pests can be devastating; here are tips for reducing their numbers.

5 Natural Ways to Mosquito-Proof Your Yard

Keep pests at bay and stay bite-free with these easy tips and DIY projects — no chemicals required.

Go Shopping

Spruce up your outdoor space with products handpicked by HGTV editors.

Follow Us Everywhere

Join the party! Don't miss HGTV in your favorite social media feeds.