Choosing a Bathroom Layout
Learn what factors to consider when planning your remodel.
When designing a bathroom, the key is to look beyond this space. Does the style blend with the rest of your house? Now, keep in mind, you don’t have to be matchy-matchy and blending doesn’t have to be boring. But if your door knobs and hardware throughout the home are oil-rubbed bronze and you choose nickel for a hall bathroom, the change in finish could be distracting to the eye.
Same goes for color scheme, except for the powder room, where drama reigns. If the master bedroom walls are painted a cheery yellow and you go for a burgundy wine colored bathroom, the jarring contrast will create a choppy feel, not the smooth transition you’re after. Unless you plan on renovating the bedroom and changing the colors there, you want an adjacent bathroom design to go with the flow.
“If the bathroom is part of a master bedroom, it needs to tie in with color or texture—something,” says Eileen Kollias, designer/owner, Eileen Kollias Design, Boston, Mass. “If the bathroom is in the hallway and not part of a suite, I don’t think it has to flow at all. It can have its own feel, its own theme, and be fun—totally different. It’s up to the homeowner.”
As you consider the layout of your bathroom, take advantage of every square inch. Tabulate configurations for plumbing fixtures and cabinets. Be sure the tub you choose is the right size for the space—a common mistake. Decide whether you want a tub in your master bath, or if you’d rather give that square footage to the shower and enhance that bathing area with soothing body sprays.
Remember, when planning a space, it’s all about you. (Sounds nice, doesn’t it?) And, in the bathroom, design must result in a space that is safe, and will grow with you.
By organizing functional areas around a central space, you give the bathroom plenty of open space no matter its size. While kitchens apply a tried-and-true work triangle, there is no exact prescription for the best bathroom layout.
Space planning all depends on your lifestyle and the way you use the space. However, keep in mind when planning that if you must move the plumbing to accommodate your new design, the price tag of your project will be much higher than if the “guts” of your bathroom can stay put. That said, layout options are more limited when relying on existing plumbing hookups, drains, ventilation, etc.
Here are functional zones you might include in the design:
Vanity. The vanity area includes a countertop, storage and a sink or two. This zone also has a mirror, which is generally in a frame in today’s designs. Mirror walls and large mirror slabs are outdated. In master baths, some homeowners are giving up the double sink to gain more counterspace. On the other hand, dual sinks are useful in family bathrooms where children or other family members share the space and want their own station.
Shower/Tub Combination. The old standby for a full bathroom is still a functional, affordable way to incorporate a shower and tub in the same small space. Ideally, a home will have at least one tub (important for resale), and this traditional fixture fits the bill (and the budget).
Tub. Supersized Jacuzzi tubs are outdated. They’re out there, but who wants to pay the water bill to fill that thing on a regular basis? And you better plan on a separate hot water heater for those pool-sized vessels. Instead, master bathrooms that include a tub are equipped with deeper, smaller tubs that are still built for two.
Feature Shower. Tubs are less commonly used in master bathrooms, and when they are used, they have a smaller footprint and are deeper. Homeowners are choosing to use the floorspace to expand their showers. Forget the old stand shower that feels like walking into a vinyl can. “Showers are getting bigger and including seats,” says Rick Miller, president of Miller’s Fancy Bath & Kitchen in Louisville, Ky. “At least one of the shower walls is coming down to a partial or half wall and we are putting glass panels on top of that and doing attractive floor-to-ceiling tile.” Meanwhile, fixtures have evolved to accommodate the demand to “soak” in the shower rather than the tub.
Spa Shower/Tub Room. Take that feature shower and expand it, then place a tiled, sculptural tub in the middle. What you get is a contemporary space that incorporates the best of both bathing features. “The whole space is tiled, and there might even be a fireplace in the wall or a television,” suggests Brian Johnson, principal, Collaborative Design Architects in Billings, Mt. “Rather than being confined in the tub, you can stand up and turn on a shower head to rinse off. This design is becoming more and more popular.”
Toilet. It’s the most used feature in your bathroom and the one fixture you don’t want to position as your design focal point. The toilet can be tucked behind the entry door, placed beside a vanity alongside a wall and partially hidden, or closed in a dedicated “water closet.” A dedicated room is ideal in larger master bathrooms, and half-walls can help block the toilet space in roomier full baths or masters where an open-air feel is desired.
Pulling it All Together
Depending on the size and shape of your bathroom, plan a design that incorporates the features you need. “Every inch counts in the bathroom,” says Cassia Wyner, designer/owner, CW Design, Brookline, Mass. There are regulations you must adhere to when placing fixtures in the space—space allowances for the toilet, sink, shower, tub. The National Kitchen & Bath Association provides recommended space allowances. Ask your designer how he is figuring those space guidelines into the design.
Also critical in a bathroom design is safety, including slip-resistant surfaces, proper lighting and features like attractive grab bars that can work as a hanger for towels or a support in case you lose your balance. “The same logic with universal design bubbles up into overall space planning,” says Diana Schrage, senior designer at Kohler. “We are providing more creative solutions for the long-term that are beautiful and are not a trade-off.”
As you plan your bathroom, here are some tips to create a layout that will work for you:
1. The toilet sets the tone.
2. Take a headcount.
3. Consider storage.
4. Give yourself space.
5. Overlap space.
6. Clear the air.
If there’s one room in the home that always needs to air out, it’s the bathroom. Beyond ushering out odors, vents serve the critical function of lifting damp air out of the room. When a bathroom is not properly vented, structural damage to the home can result.
Bathroom vents must exhaust to the outdoors—not simply up and out of the bathroom (and into the attic). “Then you put moisture in your attic and insulation, and I’ve seen instances where there was so much moisture in the attic that on cold days, the bottom of the wood deck froze and as it melted in the spring, it was like raining in the attic,” says Ken Perrin, president, Artistic Renovations, Cleveland, Ohio.
That “rain” leaks through drywall and into the rooms below.
Perrin says you need a powerful vent to get bathroom moisture out of the house. Specifically, the Home Ventilation Institute (HVI) recommends bathrooms smaller than 100 square feet have an exhaust fan that provides 1 CFM (cubic feet per minute) per square foot (about eight air changes per hour.) Bathrooms larger than 100 square feet should have a ventilation rate based on the number and type of fixtures in the room.
Toilets, showers and bath tubs need 50 CFMs each, says the HVI. A jetted tub needs 100 CFM.
So a bathroom that's 20x12 feet and has a tub (without jets), an enclosed shower and a water closet (toilet room) will require 150 CFM of vent power. You can install three separate vents in these functional zones (the ideal), or a single 150 CFM fan at a central location. You should leave a vent on for 20 minutes after leaving the bathroom. Consider a timer.
There are several venting options:
Ceiling mount fans. This metal box, or housing, is recessed into the ceiling. A vent duct runs to the outdoors.
In-line fans.The advantage of in-line fans is that they are less noisy than ceiling mount fans, and multiple fans can be connected to a single motor that is housed along the duct run (usually in an attic or crawlspace).
Wall-mount fans. If there is living space above the bathroom, this unit is a solution. It mounts on an exterior wall and the motor is located right at the vent’s exit point.
Vent switches. Specialty switches include humidity sensors that turn on the fan when air become moist, and timer switches that turn off the fan after a set amount of time.
An average American uses 70 gallons of water indoors every day per person, and 25 percent of that water goes down the drain when we flush the toilet, says Diana Schrage, senior interior designer at Kohler. “We know from our data gathering that more than half of the toilets in the U.S. are still outdated, inefficient models,” she notes.
A high-efficiency toilet can save up to 16,000 gallons of water per year for an average family of four—and you’re not compromising flush power by choosing a high-efficiency toilet. “The flushing technology will meet your needs,” Schrage assures, noting that up to 2 pounds of waste can be “processed” by these updated, efficient toilets.
But the toilet isn’t the only plumbing fixture in the house that is a water guzzler. The lavatory faucet and shower are two other culprits that can be modernized with updated fixtures designed to conserve water—and save you money on your utility bill.
Toilet. Look for a high-efficiency toilet that uses less than 2 gallons per flush. (The average is 5 gallons per flush.) Kohler’s high-efficiency toilets use 1.28 gallons per flush, Schrage says.
Vanity faucet. By selecting an efficient faucet, you can save 45 percent more water compared to older, standard fixtures, which is about 14,000 gallons of water per year for an average family of four, Schrage says.
Shower head. High-efficiency shower heads with water-saving aerators can save more than 7 gallons of water per shower, Schrage notes. Plus, you’ll avoid wasting water to heat up your shower with a “purge and pause” function that pauses water once it reaches a programmed temperature rather than allowing it to drain.
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