Willows (Salix) look great grown as pollards. Let a single stem grow to about 5 ft (1.5 m) tall, and prune so ?that new growth develops at the top, creating a head of colorful young stems.
When to Start: Late winter or early spring
At Their Best: Winter
Time to Complete: 1 hour
When the leaves fall in autumn, neaten the plant by pruning out weak and damaged stems, and remove any shoots from the main trunk.
Before new growth appears in spring, use clippers to cut back every stem to one or two buds. Use a pruning saw to remove larger material.
The shrub will look strange after pruning but don’t panic; it will quickly regrow. Give it an annual feed of all-purpose granular fertilizer, worked into the soil around the base of the plant. Use the cut stems to support peren-nials in spring and summer.
Dogwoods (Cornus species) are grown for their bare winter stems, which can be green, red, orange, or bright yellow. The youngest growth is the most vibrant, so prune them almost to the ground every year to encourage new stems.
In late winter or early spring, prune dogwoods back by cutting all stems to one or two buds above the ground. Use clippers for the thinner stems, and shears or a pruning saw for larger ones.
New stems will grow from the top buds left behind. If there are several buds, remove those facing into the center of the plant by rubbing them off with your fingers. This prevents the new stems from becoming too congested, which will weaken their winter display.
Instead of pruning your dogwoods entirely ?to the ground, you can prune out every third stem. The plant will look less scalped through the summer, although the winter show will not be as dramatic as a result.
Excerpted from How to Grow Practically Everything
© Dorling Kindersley Limited 2010