Walls and Solid Screens
Brick, stone or rendered walls enclose spaces and form a framework around the garden. When planning for a solid screen, consider the size and shape of units, which can range from random rubble to expensive stone blocks. Also think about how the color of stone or brick walls, which stands up all on its own, will fit with your larger vision. Man-made materials, such as concrete, offer almost endless possibilities in color and shape, providing clean lines or fluid structures. But you don't have to forfeit movement entirely if you go with brick or stone, demonstrated here by an in-wall water feature.
Constructing solid screens requires a significant budget and expert skills, especially with regard to structural soundness, so think twice before embarking on a wall project casually.
Once you've decided on materials, think about any details you'd like to add, for aesthetic or practical purposes. Color could be added to some or all of the wall, depending on the material. Masonry walls benefit from capping or coping to frame the top of the wall and allow water to run off. Planting in crevices is another possibility, as in these pockets of soil at the top or on the face of a wall. Limited water will be available to them, however, so choose species that can flourish in dry conditions.
Rendered Coping Wall
Coping keeps the body of the wall dry and protects it from frost damage. It also forms a stunning visual element and can make a useful horizontal surface for seating.
Wood and metal fences do not require strong foundations or heavy building materials; they are usually inexpensive and easy to build. To keep the design of an existing garden feeling coherent, it's best to repeat or copy the original fencing styles. However, for new designs you can create patterns using planks of different lengths, widths and shapes.
This tall, close-boarded fence creates privacy, and has been stained gray to enhance the overall composition.
Solid screens don't allow any wind to pass through; instead, they force it up and over, at risk to the plants below. Fences with deliberate, often decorative, gaps solve this problem by allowing some wind through.
Gates and Apertures
While screens and boundaries enclose space, they also create barriers that restrict movement and views. Opening them up with doorways, gates and windows allows access or visual links to other parts of the garden, while also increasing visual appeal. Choose complementary materials and consider how openings frame views when open, as well as look when closed, as in this painted wooden door, which gives an enticing glimpse into another part of the garden.
When closed, this picket gate blends in with the rest of the fence; the only breaks in continuity are the posts and braces required for structural stability.
This reinforced concrete screen, with artistic cut-outs for interest, would be difficult to construct. But the beautiful results link the contemporary structure to the natural planting beyond.