A successful formal garden has a balanced design, achieved through symmetry and a clearly recognizable ground plan or pattern.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Dynamic water features provide movement.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Formal gardens start with an axis, or central line, as the basis for the garden plan. The axis could be a pathway or lawn, or even a central planting bed. Generally, the axis focuses on a dominant feature, such as a sculpture, statue or, as shown here, element framed by an arch.
Once you've established the central line in your design, divide the space into halves or quarters, which you can mark out using grass or paving. Then, repeat plantings in each space in order to keep a sense of coherence and to direct the eye to a focal point along the central line.
Gardeners who like modern, minimal design may feel drawn to formal gardening for the way it balances a dramatic sense of scale with minimal plantings and hard elements. The central axis of this garden focuses attention on a steel frame and water cube. Olive trees create an avenue to enclose the central lawn, framed by reflective water and decorative border planting. Highly-polished granite paving edges a gazing area, demonstrating how cross-axes, or lines perpendicular to the central line, can be used to great effect.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
The gardens at Versailles and Vaux le Vicomte are among the best examples of classical formal garden design. Designer André Le Nôtre, who worked in the 17th Century, used level changes, reflective pools and highly stylized hedges to achieve dramatic effect. Luckily, you can scale your plans back a bit; unlike Le Nôtre, you don't have to impress King Louis XIV.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Gods and mythological creatures were the original subjects of statuary in formal gardens. In modern designs, broader figures and abstract concepts work well as focal points.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
You can clip hedging, typically box or yew for evergreen structure, to define space. Topiary provides architectural effect, and dwarf box hedges are used to form patterns in parterres, or planting beds edged in gravel.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Large, ornate urns, often on pedastals or columns, make classic focal points. Modern formal gardens can use the same technique, although their elements should be made of more modern material and be less extravagent lines. Think granite orbs or geometric statues on a tall metal base.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Paving provides an architectural element for pathways and terraces. Smooth, low gloss natural stone can create decorative patterns, host focal points or edge lawns and gravel paths.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Limestone paving defines this lawn with a crisp, formal edge. Lime trees, trained and trimmed with the technique known as pleaching, bring privacy to this urban space.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
An overflowing bowl of water creates a focus at the center of this courtyard garden at the Alhambra in Spain. Water balances the formal planting with a dynamic quality.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Just because formal garden design use lines doesn't mean they have to be rigid or straight. This garden's well-trimmed swirls and rounds bring whimsy and flirtation to a space made romantic by a soft, pastel canopy.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
A simple rectangular lawn, perfectly uniform hornbeams and a pale paved surface create restrained formality. Sutle lighting directs the eye to the three columns at the far end, and ties the design together.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
A simple slope and basin, connected to host flowing water, form the focus of this pleasingly simple arrangement. This meditative space shows how garden design can bring in only one element of formality to great effect.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Here, tightly clipped topiaries support the central line, a path of variated gravel softened by low plantings which blur the border slightly.Garden Design ©Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009
Stone edging in straight, intersecting lines retains an air formality in this garden, and contrasts nicely with the colorful, wild plantings which fill its beds.